Trade Agreements And Non-Communicable Diseases In The Pacific Islands

According to FAO, „the decline in the competitiveness of Pacific Island farmers and fishermen has reduced their ability to supply both exports and the domestic market at competitive prices.“ Cassels S: Overweight in the Pacific: Links between foreign dependence, global food trade and obesity in the Federated States of Micronesia. Global health. 2006, 2:10 – Chronic Disease and Health Promotion. STEPS country reports. [www.who.int/chp/steps/reports/en/], Blouin C, Chopra M, van der Hoeven R: Trade and social determinants of health; Trade and health 3. 2009, 373: 502-507. While diet change is not the only explanation for the increase in obesity and ncDs in the region, dietary changes are considered an important factor. Diet in PICs has seen a big change in recent history, with energy-rich, low-nutrient foods largely replacing whole-value traditional foods. A comprehensive review of nutritional studies over time shows how traditional low-fat diets – typically based on complex carbohydrates, fish, fresh meats and locally produced leafy vegetables – have become an increased consumption of imported refined starch, oils, fatty (preserved) processed meat and fish, sugar and confectionery [4, 6]. This gradual process, often referred to as the „shift to food,“ was heavily influenced by colonization and World War II, opening up transportation and trade routes to the Pacific islands and facilitating the increased availability of imported food [4, 6]. Nutrition movements have accelerated since the 1960s, especially in the urban population, and are characterized by a significant increase in fat consumption.

Data on food supply show that the overall supply of energy and fat available has increased by 64% in all countries since 1965 [4]. The methodology and results presented in this paper are not designed to serve in isolation as a basis for policy development at the interface between trade and uns reported data. Other forms of data and inputs are needed to develop specific strategies that are effective, sustainable and targeted. Nevertheless, the methodology and results have a wider impact on policies and, in particular, on political decision-making processes. First, the results of this analysis point to policy options in the area of public health, which target the main drivers of food-related health risks. In Kiribati, for example, reducing sugar consumption would likely be a priority policy objective, given that sugar is such an important source of calories. Raising the price of sugar, for example, could be an objective that could be removed from the list by removing sugar and implementing a sugar tax. A direct sugar tax would be a variant of other more targeted sugar taxes that have been the subject of global discussions for years, particularly those on soft drinks, with Mexico being the latest example of large-scale implementation. . .

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